supermarket dilemma : battle of the bags: paper or plastic?
\"Some customers get very angry and if they don\'t get the kind of bag they want, they start yelling,\" said Dirkx, who has been working on Vons West Meno Avenue for two years.
\"It\'s amazing that they make such little things so frustrating for them.
They didn\'t even have a choice a few years ago.
In supermarkets all over the country-
Especially in the highly competitive Southern California food market. -
A dispute over groceries is brewing at the checkout counter. The plastic-
The luggage industry has launched a new marketing effort aimed at significantly increasing its already growing share of $600
Million grocery market
At the same time, there seems to be a rebound between paperbag partisans.
Since plastic bags were first widely introduced in the United States in 1979, everyone seems to be happy with grocery bags ---
From suburban residents who want paper bags to urban shoppers who find plastic bags easier to carry, their groceries will remain upright in the car trunk.
Manufacturers of grocery bags are not just relying on their products to attract converts.
They are stressing
The same is true of shooting ---
From paper bags as Halloween masks to plastic bags as temporary windbreakers.
\"I think we are too excited (
In grocery bags)
Because some of us feel that we have gone through enough changes, \"says Harold cassarjian, a marketing professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, who is the editor of The Journal of Consumer Research.
Like Coca. Cola.
People can\'t distinguish between new Coke and old Coke \", but still, people are loyal to old products.
S. consumers have \"resisted change,\" he said \". \"Letter-
500,000 writing activity-
The oldest and largest women\'s volunteer organization Women\'s Club Federation in the country will release a letter nationwide this month
Ernie Shriner of Wyo Cheyenne says the writing campaign is to get the grocery store to carry only paper bags because the organization is concerned about the environmental impact of plastic bags.
The head of the organization\'s protection committee.
Kassarjian said some objections to plastic bags may stem from concerns about the environmental impact of plastic bags.
However, many consumer groups have little luck with items such as plastic garbage bags, foam plastic egg boxes and plastic milk containers, and I find that food grocery bags are a problem that can inspire all of us.
\"This is a problem that puts you in the face of serious consequences of polluting the environment,\" says Barry Commoner, a prominent environmental activist and director at the Center for Natural Systems Biology at Queen\'s College.
\"It raises the issue of public democratic control over production decisions.
In other words, does society really need plastic bags?
Commoner said: \"It is common for eco-activists to object to a variety of plastics because the material cannot be biodegradable and remains intact at the molecular level.
Plastic products sometimes emit toxic smoke when burning, and plastic waste can harm birds and other animals involved in it or mistaken plastic for food.
The plastic food grocery bag Committee in Washington retorted that the molecular integrity of the plastic is good because \"the plastic does not have the problems of ice loss, bacteria or explosive gas as the rotten paper products sometimes appear\"
The struggle between paper and plastic bags reflects a bigger and more important struggle between paper mills ---
In terms of the wholesale value of the goods shipped, this is the largest industry ---and the No.
The plastic and resin industry will be the preferred material for the packaging industry.
Plastic has been the winner in recent years.
The amount of plastic used in the package has approximately doubled to 12.
4 billion pounds from 5 in 1984.
1975 6 billion.
In the supermarket, everything from milk, eggs to potato chips and tofu is packed in plastic.
\"The first big project to be changed (paper)
\"Plastic is a meat tray because it sticks to the meat when you freeze the meat class,\" said Ronald Schmider, marketing manager at Mobil Chemical Co.
Leading manufacturer of plastic shopping bags.
The bags, ice cream bags and egg boxes were then produced, and they were all crushed to death by plastic, he said.
\"The last stronghold is a grocery bag, and now we have to deal with that,\" said deseder . \".
\"It\'s not easy to take over the paper-based grocery bag market for more than a century. But the T-
Shirt-shaped plastic bag with built-in-
In the handle it is said to be easier to carry and can also be used for other purposes.
The plastic grocery bag board says plastic bags can be reused in 17 different ways, including packaging as frozen food, wind-proof devices for joggers, or beach bags.
Paper bag advocates boast that paper bags can be used as a cover of a book, a cover of a parcel mailed, a garbage bag or--
With the help of scissors and a little creativity--
Civilians said he used \"anything they gave me\" in the supermarket \".
Despite his opposition to plastic, cloth said he was \"better off arguing with the cashier\" about paper and plastic \".
Most other consumers seem to have a deep view of grocery bags.
Dirkx, shop assistant, said she prefers paper bags because they remain upright in the back seat of her car and \"fit my trash can \".
\"Yvette Roland, a legal officer in the United States. S.
The Los Angeles District Court was once the first choice for newspapers, but recently turned to plastic.
\"I used to prefer paper because it carries more things, but now I prefer plastic.
\"Plastic is stronger,\" Roland explained . \".
\"When you get to the top of the stairs, the paper bags always seem to tear.
\"I prefer plastic because I have a friend in my building telling me that it attracts cockroaches when you use paper,\" Los Angeles freelancer Brenda Dilance writer.
\"I have been asking for plastic since I heard the news.
Bill Lawrence, a retired construction worker from Hawthorne, said he wanted paper because it fits his trash can.
He also saved bags for his grandson to make book covers and other schools --
A 1983 study conducted by a research team at the University of Southern California on Los Angeles shoppers showed that \"Retailers have to provide two bags and they need plastic and paper to meet most of their customers\' needs.
\"For example, according to the University of Southern California survey of 205 shoppers in Southern California, women tend to like paper bags.
Men like plastic a little.
The study also found that people who drive to shops are more likely to ask for paper bags than people who walk or take buses.
For example, 45% of people who drive to the store use paper bags, only 41% use paper bags, and only 12% like paper, the study found.
People also found that ethnic origin is also a factor in the choice of bags.
Latino shoppers prefer plastic bags.
Black shoppers are separated, 40% like plastic, 40% like paper, while white and Asian
Americans like a small amount of paper.
Owners are at risk in a consumer preference war, they are angry supermarket operators, and if they try to throw away paper or plastic they have the potential to incur the wrath of their customers.
Ralphs groceries a few years ago
Changed to plastic grocery bags, the result was so strongly protested that the chain store with 128 stores completely abandoned plastic.
However, this makes plastic party feel uneasy.
So we decided 50-
50. paper and plastic make everyone happy.
At Safeway, the country\'s largest grocery chain, regional managers have a lot of autonomy to decide which bags to carry.
Safeway spokesman Felicia del Campo said about 75% of the 60 million shopping bags that Safeway customers carried last year were paper-based.
At Safeway, consumer acceptance of plastic seems to be much slower than that of Ralphs, Vons and many other West Coast grocery chains, where the share of plastic is higher than its 25% national market share.
The industry has set up a Washington trade group to improve the fate of plastics
This spring, a trade group of 26 plastic bag manufacturers was called the plastic grocery bag committee.
It also charges.
Free telephone lines and thousands of \"information\" brochures are being distributed to retailers and consumers to promote plastic bags.
\"This is the end of the day,\" S said . \"
Edward Lloyd, director, technical and data, Council.
\"What consumers want is powerful, attractive and convenient.
We have products that they don\'t have.
David Carlton, spokesman for the American Newspaper Association, retorted: \"The newspaper is
American products that mean work and profit here. . .
Not in some (foreign)oil field.
After all, Carlton added: \"You Brownbag your lunch;
You\'re not talking about plastic. bagging it.
\"Plastic bags account for more than 80% of the market in most parts of Europe, and shoppers are already used to using plastic bags. Mainly because many European shoppers walk to the store, it is found that they are easier to carry.
At least one country in Italy is prohibited from carrying luggage. -Italy--
Plastic bags have been banned in order to reduce garbage, and plastic bags also occupy most of the market in Japan and Australia.
Plastic grocery bags are developing more slowly in the United States.
The early plastic bags here are expensive and too fragile to carry heavy objects such as cans, meat and large bottles.
But in 1978, scientists developed a resin that can be made into bags with thinner but stronger plastic.
With the development of science and technology, the market share of plastics has increased sharply. -
From 5% in 1982 to 25% now.
According to the industry\'s forecast, plastic bags will occupy 1988 of the market by 50%.
At first, plastic bags could not compete. -
They are like Gucci bags, which are too expensive . \"
\"But stronger resin allows us to compete with paper.
This is a huge breakthrough.
\"The difference between Del Campo in CostSafeway is that in some parts of the country, the price of plastic bags is still more expensive than paper.
But plastic and paper industry analysts generally believe that plastic is now 10% to 15% cheaper than paper.
A supermarket executive, who declined to be named, said that on the west coast, the price of 1,000 plastic bags was about $24, while the price of paper was $26 to $30.
Plastic also has less space under the checkout counter, and transport is cheaper than paper.
Even the forest products industry is worried that paper shopping bags may not be an affordable option in the long run.
As a factory producing brown paper bags, the paper industry is slowly losing capacity. -so-
Kraft paper called unbleached-
Turn off or convert to make more profitable products such as office and computer paper.
Champion International, for example, in February.
Stamford in Conne
, Sell its kraft paper business to stone container company.
$0. 428 billion.
The champion also spent more than $0. 2 billion to transform a kraft paper mill in Pensacola, Florida.
Make more profitable office supplies and bleach paper products for other purposes.
Another large forest products company in Atlanta-
Headquartered in the Pacific, Georgia, recently completed the transformation of the kraft paper mill in arkrosett.
Produce bleached paper products.
Meanwhile, Gilman Paper Co. , Ltd.
The company\'s marketing manager, John Collin, said the grocery bag division in New York closed in December and lost $10 million since 1980.
Lawrence Ross, a paper industry analyst at Paine Webber, said: \"There is no big impact yet . \".
\"But the newspaper company knew the book was written on the wall.
Paper companies have provided reconfigurations for the production of other grades of paper.
\"However, Stone Container Co. , Ltd. is the leading manufacturer of kraft paper.
Its net income is $3 in Chicago.
Sales were $78 million.
23 billion in 1985, it was considered that there was still money to earn in the supply of paper-based grocery bags.
Samuel Posner, vice president of retail packaging at Stone, said that the US dollar\'s strength in most foreign currencies in 1985 hurt Kraft\'s paper industry more than the competition of plastic bag manufacturers.
Many factories have been renovated because they are outdated, he said.
\"They want to transform their factories into state-of-the-art ones,\" he said . \".
But Posner admits,
The term outlook for the paper is not optimistic.
\"The paper market is not a growing market,\" he said . \"
But at the moment, he says, both have positions.
I think consumers will see this.